Penang is the fastest growing state in Malaysia with extensive land reclamation leading to the construction of extensive artificial coastlines and large artificial offshore islands. Research is required into ways that artificial coastlines can be built to meet engineering requirements, whilst providing relevant ecosystem services: ecological engineering. Much of this research has been done in temperate regions with relatively benign conditions. Ecological engineering can successfully enhance biodiversity in temperate climates but the benefits in tropical regions remains untested. If taxpayer's money is to be spent on expensive ecological engineering, it is important to know when & where it will succeed.
Food & man: Towards improving sustainable advancement of crustacean mariculture. An introduction to the crustacean culture laboratory
Summary of Research
The Population Study of Keyhole Sand Dollar Echinodiscus Truncates (Echinoidea: Astriclypeidae) in the Intertidal Zone of Penang National Park, Malaysia
1Centre For Marine & Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia.
2School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang, Malaysia.
Summary of Research (USM Short-Term Grant; Aug 2014 - Aug 2016)