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Penang is the fastest growing state in Malaysia with extensive land reclamation leading to the construction of extensive artificial coastlines and large artificial offshore islands. Research is required into ways that artificial coastlines can be built to meet engineering requirements, whilst providing relevant ecosystem services: ecological engineering. Much of this research has been done in temperate regions with relatively benign conditions. Ecological engineering can successfully enhance biodiversity in temperate climates but the benefits in tropical regions remains untested. If taxpayer's money is to be spent on expensive ecological engineering, it is important to know when & where it will succeed.
Summary of Research
Summary of Research (USM Short-Term Grant; Aug 2014 - Aug 2016)